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Pigeon Excreta: A Potential Source of Cryptococcus Neoformans and their Antifungal Susceptibility Profile

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Pigeon Excreta: A Potential Source of Cryptococcus Neoformans and their Antifungal Susceptibility Profile


Richa Gumasta | Shankar Mohan Singh | Ravi Prakash Mishra | Shesh Rao Nawange | Abhijeet Garg | Anuranjan Singh Rathore



Richa Gumasta | Shankar Mohan Singh | Ravi Prakash Mishra | Shesh Rao Nawange | Abhijeet Garg | Anuranjan Singh Rathore "Pigeon Excreta: A Potential Source of Cryptococcus Neoformans and their Antifungal Susceptibility Profile" Published in International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development (ijtsrd), ISSN: 2456-6470, Volume-3 | Issue-5, August 2019, pp.233-238, URL: https://www.ijtsrd.com/papers/ijtsrd25250.pdf

Globally the pigeon droppings are a known ecologic niche for cosmopolitan pathogenic yeast Cryptococcus neoformans, an etiological agent of deadly disease cryptococcosis. In this prospective study between 2015- 2017, we analyzed the isolation of C. neoformans strains from a total of 305 pigeon excreta samples of caged pigeons with a pH of 6-8, from different sites of Central India. NCCLS broth microdilution methodology was employed on the isolated strains against amphotericin B, fluconazole, itraconazole, ketoconazole, and voriconazole. C. neoformans were found positive from fifty-five dry guano feces. Maximum positive samples found for the pathogens were from caged pigeon excreta collected from the 12 different sites in city Jabalpur 23 (46 %), 9 (18 %) from four sites katni, followed by 3 sites from each city Betul 8 (16 %), Satna 6 (12%) and Rewa 4 (.08 %). The highest frequency of C. neoformans was recorded from site 2 (60%), followed by site 24 (37.5%), site 17 (27.27%), whereas site 3, 6, 10, 15 and 19 found negative for pathogenic yeast. the present study of antifungal susceptibility profile for C. neoformans revealed resistance against ketoconazole (25.5%) and fluconazole (8.5 %). The highest susceptibility was observed for amphotericin B (100 %) followed by voriconazole (97.9 %) and itraconazole (78.7%) No resistance was found for polyene drug amphotericin B. Fluconazole (46.8 %) and ketoconazole (36.2%). This data of prevalence and colonization of this pathogen suggests that the dry excreta provides a more favorable environment for growth inside the cages and is more concerned with health hazards of the humans in proximity and further comprehensive study is required to reinforce the antifungal spectrum for the prudent therapy of cryptococcosis.

Pigeon droppings, Cryptococcosis, Cryptococcus neoformans, Central India, NCCLS, antifungal susceptibility


IJTSRD25250
Volume-3 | Issue-5, August 2019
233-238
IJTSRD | www.ijtsrd.com | E-ISSN 2456-6470
Copyright © 2019 by author(s) and International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development Journal. This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0) (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0)

International Journal of Trend in Scientific Research and Development - IJTSRD having online ISSN 2456-6470. IJTSRD is a leading Open Access, Peer-Reviewed International Journal which provides rapid publication of your research articles and aims to promote the theory and practice along with knowledge sharing between researchers, developers, engineers, students, and practitioners working in and around the world in many areas like Sciences, Technology, Innovation, Engineering, Agriculture, Management and many more and it is recommended by all Universities, review articles and short communications in all subjects. IJTSRD running an International Journal who are proving quality publication of peer reviewed and refereed international journals from diverse fields that emphasizes new research, development and their applications. IJTSRD provides an online access to exchange your research work, technical notes & surveying results among professionals throughout the world in e-journals. IJTSRD is a fastest growing and dynamic professional organization. The aim of this organization is to provide access not only to world class research resources, but through its professionals aim to bring in a significant transformation in the real of open access journals and online publishing.

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