Immuno Oncology Agents A New Era of Cancer Therapy
In past decade cancer therapy was treated with four main types surgery, radiotherapy, chemotherapy and targeted therapy. But as compared to earlier therapies immunotherapy has come to work as a significant role in the treatment of cancer which can improve patients living and its survival. Cancer immunotherapy was discovered in the year 1890s with a cancer surgeon named Dr. William Coley. He discovered that infecting cancer patients with certain bacteria sometimes resulted in tumor regression and even some complete disappearance. Now immune checkpoint inhibitors and two CAR T therapy to treat blood cancers products have received market approval in treating 22 types of cancers and 1 tissue agnostic cancer indication. Biomarker testing for the programmed death ligand 1 PD L1 checkpoint target has been developed and is now obligatory before treatment with pembrolizumab when used for non small cell lung carcinoma, gastric cancer, head and neck squamous cell carcinoma and cervical cancer, as well as before treatment with atezolizumab when used for urothelial carcinoma. The IO pipeline also includes chimeric antigen receptor T cell therapies and cancer vaccines, which can be promising for the future. New pickouts such as Siglec 15 and new supervision including neoantigens, cancer vaccines, oncolytic viruses, and cytokines were judged. Currently it has been reported on the co delivery of glucose oxidase GOx and indoleamine 2, 3 dioxygenase IDO inhibitor 1 methyltryptophan using a metal organic framework MOF base nano reactor, appearing to an developed release for tumor oxidation. Opdualag combination of two immunotherapy drugs relatlimab and nivolumab becomes first FDA approved immunotherapy to target LAG 3. In this article, we have highlight new waves of IO therapy development, and provide standpoint on the latest inducement shifts towards cancer immunotherapy. It has been seen that success rate of immunotherapy drugs is 20 50 which can increase further with later development.
immuno oncology IO , immunotherapy, T cells, immune checkpoint inhibitor, cancer, tumor
Manjusha Shivkumar Kareppa | Kamble V. B. | Ratnaparkhi S. V. | Shaikh Sohel S. | Jankar K. G.