Gender Impact of ICT in Education
Gender is an important issue in the context of information and communication technologies ICT . Studies show that ICT use is subject to gender bias, e.g. in relation to ICT use and interests. This contribution describes the current situation of gender and ICT professions. Based on an empirical study, it shows particular areas in ICT education that suffer from gender inequalities in both countries. Furthermore, the chapter elaborates how gender inequalities develop from secondary to professional ICT careers based on statistics. As a consequence of recession driven economic development, the information and communication technology sector has weakened in recent years in OECD countries. Still, an ICT growth of about 4 percent was observed in 2008. Although there was a decrease in 2009 due to the current financial crisis, a general upturn is expected in the long term because of constant development of the ICT services, software, products for Internet use and communication, and infrastructure. The ICT skills of the work force contribute to the growth the overall share of employees in ICT specialist occupations is 4 percent and increasing rapidly, and 20 percent of employment relates to occupations that use ICT extensively.Even though information and communication technology ICT is essential for everyday life and has gained considerable attention in education and other sectors, it also carries individual differences in its use and relevant skills. This systematic review aims to examine the gender differences in ICT use and skills for learning through technology. A comprehensive search of eight journal databases and a specific selection criterion was carried out to exclude articles that match our stated exclusion criteria. We included 42 peer reviewed empirical publications and conference proceedings published between 2006 and 2020. For a subsample of studies, we performed a small scale meta analysis to quantify possible gender differences in ICT use and skills. A random effects model uncovered a small and positive, yet not significant, effect size in favor of boys g = 0.17, 95 CI 0.01, 0.36 . However, this finding needs to be further backed by large scale meta analyses, including more study samples and a broader set of ICT use and skills measures. We highlight several concerns that should be addressed and more thoroughly in collaboration with one another to better IT skills and inspire new policies to increase the quality of ICT use.
gender, education, ICT, impact, policies, employment, statistics, countries