Relationship between Corporate Social Responsibility and Earnings Management A Systematic Review of Measurement Methods
The relationship between corporate social responsibility CSR and earnings management EM is an extensive empirical study. However, the evidence on the nature of the relationship is unclear. A commonly defined reason for divergent and contradictory results is measurement issues. The purpose of this article is to evaluate alternative operation and measurement methods applied to the CSR and EM concepts in the empirical literature on CSR EM relationships. Our systematized appraisal was conducted over the last nine years from 2008 to 2016. This study has come to different observations. First, CSR measurement methods include sustainability indexes, content analyzes and single dimensional measurements, while EM measurement methods include discretionary accruals, discretionary loan loss provisions, real earnings management, abnormal earnings management, earnings persistence and earnings smoothing. In addition to the unique drawbacks of the approach, the subjectivity of the researcher and the selection anomalies that may influence the nature of the CSR EM relationships identified in the empirical literature. Finally, possible ways of overcoming these disadvantages are recommended.
Corporate social responsibility, Earnings management, Systematic Review
Mashiur Rahman | Sarah Chowdhury