<b>Application of Fundamental Mathematical Structure using a Self Game for Cognitive Development in Children</b> Education plays a great role in everyone’s life. The whole education has been divided into Primary, Secondary, and Higher Education divisions. All the three parts of education have their own importance and benefits. The primary education consists of wonderful subjects which can be taught to better the life of child and lays foundation. Mathematics is one of the core subjects in Educational System. This Paper presents how to develop an understanding of the basic mathematics concepts specifically for children in Primary education division. This paper contains a “Snake and Ladder play way method” which is an ancient Indian Board Game and enables the child to learn playfully and willingly and is a great tool for self learning. Cognitive development is a concept derived from Piaget’s theory and the basic concept of mathematics is derived from Number theory. It is also called as THE QUEEN OF MATHEMATICS. Combination of these two concepts helps the child to “play and learn” and in the process build an understanding of stable fundamental mathematical concepts aiding in gaining knowledge. Therefore, this innovative self play game can be used as excellent teaching learning material for people of all ages, specifically for children as this focuses on the cognitive development of students irrespective of those facing learning difficulties in mathematics. Number Theory, Basic four fundamentals of mathematics, Cognitive development of children, Snake and ladder game, Play way method 843-846 Issue-3 Volume-3 K. Suneetha Devi