<b>Spectrum Handoff Decisions</b> In modern society wireless communication plays a very important role with huge increase of users, services and standards. Although there are several pros of using cognitive radio networks, for example increasing the spectrum utilization of wireless networks, but still there exist some challenges which need to be discussed in detail First, since cognitive radio networks are planned to operate over a heterogeneous spectrum environment, which comprises of both licensed and unlicensed spectrum bands, most of the research has been done in only the licensed band of the spectrum and only some research has been carried out in such an environment as merging licensed and unlicensed spectrum bands for transmission increases the spectrum utilization of cognitive radio wireless networks. There is need to develop new spectrum handoff schemes to improve the performance of the secondary users in terms of their handoff delay. CR, SDR, DSA 36-38 Issue-6 Volume-2 Bisma Bashir | Er. Tajinder Pal Singh