Effects of Aqueous Leaf Extract of Cashew Anacardium Occidentale on Paracetamol Induced Hepatotoxicity of Adult Male Wistar Rats
While paracetamol is described as relatively nontoxic when administered in therapeutic doses, it is known to cause toxicity when taken in a single or repeated high dose, or after chronic ingestion. Adverse events typically associated with paracetamol intoxication include acute liver failure ALF , centrilobular hepatic necrosis, renal tubular necrosis and hypoglycemic coma.Cashew Anacardium occidentale has been used both as source of nutrition and medicinally worldwide.A total of 25 adult male Wistar rats weighing 100g-200g were used for this study. The animals were divided into 5 groups of 5 rats each. 1000mg kg body weight of paracetamol was given for 3 days to induce liver damage in groups B-E. Group A served as the normal control group and received feed and water throughout the period of the experiment. Group B served as negative control group and received feeds and water throughout the period of the experiment, but no treatment with the extract. Group C, D and E received 150mg, 300mg and 500mg kg of the extract for 21 days. All data obtained were subjected to statistical analysis using t-test, one-way ANOVA and POST HOC LSD using SPSS version 20. Differences between means were regarded significant at P 0.05. Data were expressed as mean standard error of mean SEM .The result showed a significant increase in AST in Group E P 0.05 when compared to Group A. However, there was a decrease in Group C when compared to Group B. Also, there was a significant increase in ALT in Group D P 0.05 and Group E P 0.05 , when compared to Group A. However, there was a decrease in Group C for both AST and ALT when compared to Group B.From this study, it can be said that aqueous leaf extract of Anacardium occidentale has a little correction effect on Paracetamol induced hepatotoxicity in small doses. However, it can exert a serious toxic effect on the liver with increased dosage.
Okonkwo, C. O. J | Oguaka V.N. | Edeh, A.I.